In selecting an exchanger, one must know the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The three basic types of shell-and-tube exchangers are fixed tube sheet,…

The flow of a compressible fluid through an orifice is limited by critical flow. Critical flow is also referred to as choked flow, sonic flow,…

The Reynolds number is a dimensionless parameter that relates the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces. It can be expressed by the following general…

Federal regulations and most authorities having jurisdiction require that “free oil” be removed from deck drainage prior to disposal. It is extremely difficult to predict…

Two-Phase Flow There are no precise formulas for calculating orifice area for twophase flow. The common convention is to calculate the area required for the…

A vessel may be subject to more than one condition under different failure scenarios. For example, a low pressure separator may be subject to blocked…

In specifying the size of a treater, it is necessary to determine theĀ diameter (d), length or height of the coalescing section (Leff or h),…

In large facilities oil is typically sold through a LACT unit, which is designed to meet API Standards and whatever additional measuring and sampling standards…

The Bernoulli equation is a way of describing how the energy of a fluid changes along its path. It says that the sum of the…

In long horizontal vessels it is necessary to install wave breakers, which are nothing more than vertical baffles spanning the gas-liquid interface and perpendicular to…