# Category: Shell and Tube Exchangers

The required heat duty, film coefficients, conductivity, etc. for a shell and tube heat exchanger can be calculated using the procedures in Heat Transfer Theory, Approximate U-values are given in Table 2-8. In the basic heat transfer equation it is necessary to use the log mean temperature difference. In Equation 2-4 it was assumed that …

TEMA standards provide for two classes of shell and tube exchanger qualities. Class C is the less  stringent and is typically used in onshore applications and where the temperature is above ~20°F. Class R is normally used offshore and in cold temperature service. Table 3-2 shows the most important differences between a Class R and …

The question always comes up of which fluid to put in the tubes and which fluid to put in the shell. Consider placing a fluid through the tubes when: 1. Special alloy materials are required for corrosion control and high temperatures. 2. Fluid is at high pressures. 3. Fluid contains vapors and non-condensable gases. 4. …

In selecting an exchanger, one must know the advantages and disadvantages of each type. The three basic types of shell-and-tube exchangers are fixed tube sheet, floating head, and U-tube. Table 3-1 summarizes the comparison between these three exchangers.

In addition to the type description code there is also a shorthand that is used for classifying heat exchangers. The first element of the shorthand is the nominal diameter, which is the inside diameter of the shell in inches, rounded off to the nearest integer. For kettle reboilers and chillers (remember the kettle has a …

There are many different arrangements of the shells, tubes and baffles in heat exchangers. Figure 3-6 is a list of TEMA standard classifications for heat exchangers, which helps to describe the various options. Theseare best understood in conjunction with the example configurations given in Figures 3-7 through 3-9. The first letter designates the front end …

Tube holes cannot be drilled very close together, since this may structually weaken the tube sheet. The shortest distance between two adjacent tube holes is called the “clearance.” Tubes are laid out in either square or triangular patterns as shown in Figure 3-5. The advantage of square pitch is that the tubes are accessible for …

Heat-exchanger tubes should not be confused with steel pipe or other types of pipe that are extruded to steel pipe sizes. The outside diameter of heat-exchanger tubes is the actual outside diameter in inches within a very strict tolerance. Heat-exchanger tubes are available in a variety of metals including steel, copper, brass, 70-30 copper-nickel, aluminum …