Category: Crude Oil Treating System

Treaters Separator Design Procedure

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In specifying the size of a treater, it is necessary to determine the  diameter (d), length or height of the coalescing section (Leff or h), and treating temperature or fire-tube rating. As we have seen, these variables are interdependent, and it is not possible to arrive at a unique solution for each. The design engineer …

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Treaters Water Separator Droplet Size

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Treaters Water Separator Droplet Size

In order to develop a treater design procedure, the water droplet size to be used in the settling equation to achieve a given outlet water cut must be determined. As previously mentioned, it would be extremely rare to have laboratory data of the droplet size distribution for a given emulsion as it enters the coalescing …

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Treater Separator Retention Time Equations

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Treater Separator Retention Time Equations

The oil must be held at temperature for a specific period of time to enable de-emulsifying the water-in-oil emulsion. This information is best determined in the laboratory but, in the absence of such data, 20 to 30 minutes is a good starting point. Depending on the specific properties of the stream to be treated, geometry …

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Treater Separator Settling Equations

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Treater Separator Settling Equations

The specific gravity difference between the dispersed water droplets and the oil should result in the water “sinking” to the bottom of the treatment vessel. Since the oil continuous phase is flowing vertically upward in both vertical and horizontal treaters previously described, the downward velocity of the water droplet must be sufficient to overcome the …

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Electrostatic Treaters Process

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Electrostatic Treaters Process

Some treaters use an electrode section. Figure 6-11 illustrates a typical design of a horizontal electrostatic treater. The flow path in an electrostatic treater is the same as a horizontal treater. The only difference is that an AC and/or DC electrostatic field is used to promote coalescence of the water droplets. Procedures for designing electrostatic …

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Horizontal Treaters Separator

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Horizontal Treaters Separator

For most multi-well situations horizontal treaters are normally required. Figure 6-10 shows a typical design of a horizontal treater. Flow enters the front section of the treater where gas is flashed. The liquid falls around the outside to the vicinity of the oil-water interface where the liquid is “water washed” and the free water is …

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Vertical Treaters Separator

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Vertical Treaters Separator

The most commonly used single-well lease treater is the vertical treater as shown in Figure 6-8. Flow enters the top of the treater into a gas separation section. Care must be exercised to size this section so that it has adequate dimensions to separate the gas from the inlet flow. If the treater is located …

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Electrostatic Coalescers Process

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Electrostatic Coalescers Process

Coalescing of the small water drops dispersed in the crude can be accomplished by subjecting the water-in-oil emulsion to a high-voltage electrical field. When a non-conductive liquid (oil) containing a dispersed conductive liquid (water) is subjected to an electrostatic field, the conductive particles or droplets are caused to combine by one of three physical phenomena: …

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Coalescing Media

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It is possible to use a coalescing media to promote coalescence of the water droplets. These media provide large surface area upon which water droplets can collect. The most common coalescing media is wood shavings or excelsior, which is referred to as a “hay section.” The wood excelsior is tightly packed to create an obstruction …

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Water Droplet Size and Retention Time

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The droplet diameter is the most important single parameter to control to aid in water settling since this term is squared in the settling equation. A small increase in diameter will create a much larger increase in settling rate. It would be extremely rare to have laboratory data of droplet coalescence for a given system.  …

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