Designation: A197/A197M − 00 (Reapproved 2015)
Standard Speciﬁcation for
Cupola Malleable Iron
This standard is issued under the ﬁxed designation A197/A197M; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year
of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval.
A superscript epsilon (´) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval.
This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the U.S. Department of Defense.
1.1 This speciﬁcation covers malleable irons for castings
made by the cupola process.
1.2 Without knowledge of casting geometry and process
details, quantitative relationships cannot be stated between the
properties of the iron in the various locations of a casting and
those of a test bar cast from the same iron.
1.3 The values stated in either inch-pound units or SI units
are to be regarded separately as standard. Within the text, the
SI units are shown in brackets. The values stated in each
system are not exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall
be used independently of the other. Combining values from the
two systems may result in nonconformance with the speciﬁ-
2. Referenced Documents
2.1 ASTM Standards:
A247 Test Method for Evaluating the Microstructure of
Graphite in Iron Castings
A644 Terminology Relating to Iron Castings
E8 Test Methods for Tension Testing of Metallic Materials
for many terms common to
iron castings are found in Terminology A644.
4.1 Iron produced for castings ordered under this speciﬁca-
tion is classiﬁed in a single grade and is qualiﬁed by tests on
separately cast test bars. Separately cast test bars shall be
poured from the same lot of iron as the castings they represent
and shall be heat treated with those castings.
5. Ordering Information
5.1 The purchase order for castings ordered under this
speciﬁcation shall state the speciﬁcation designation and the
year in which the speciﬁcation was issued.
5.2 Any options or special additions to the basic require-
ments of this speciﬁcation shall be clearly and fully stipulated.
6. Chemical Composition
6.1 The chemical composition of the iron shall be such as to
produce the mechanical properties required by this speciﬁca-
7. Mechanical Requirements
7.1 Factors inﬂuencing the properties of castings and their
relationship to those of test specimens and separate test
castings are discussed in Appendix X1.
7.2.1 Tensile Test Specimens:
18.104.22.168 The tensile test specimens shall be cast to the form
and dimensions shown in Fig. 1 and Fig. 2 using the same kind
molding material used for the production castings.
22.214.171.124 All test specimens shall be suitably identiﬁed with
the designation of the pour period.
126.96.36.199 All test specimens shall be heat treated in the same
production furnace and for the same cycles as the castings they
7.2.2 Tensile Test Method:
188.8.131.52 Perform the tensile test on unmachined specimens.
184.108.40.206 Gage Length—The gage length of the standard
tensile specimen shall be 2.00 6 0.01 in. [50.0 6 0.03 mm].
220.127.116.11 Cross-Sectional Area—The diameter used to com-
pute the cross-sectional area shall be the average between the
largest and smallest diameters in that section of the 2-in. [50
mm] gage length having the smallest diameter and shall be
measured to the nearest 0.001 in. [0.02 mm]. No cast bar
having a mean diameter less than 0.590 in. [15 mm] shall be
accepted for test.
18.104.22.168 Speed of Testing—After reaching a stress equivalent
to approximately half of the anticipated yield stress, the speed
of the moving head of the testing machine shall not exceed
0.50 in./min [12.5 mm/min] through the breaking load.
This speciﬁcation is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee A04 on Iron
Castings and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee A04.02 on Malleable and
Ductile Iron Castings.
Current edition approved Nov. 1, 2015. Published November 2011. Originally
approved in 1936. Last previous edition approved in 2011 as A197/A197M – 00
(2011). DOI: 10.1520/A0197_A0197M-00R15.
For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or
contact ASTM Customer Service at email@example.com. For Annual Book of ASTM
Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on
the ASTM website.
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22.214.171.124 Yield Strength—While the values for yield point and
yield strength are not identical, they are sufficiently close for
most applications to be used interchangeably. They shall be
determined by an approved technique described in Test Meth-
E8 or by an equivalent method. If determined as yield
strength, that stress producing an extension under load of 0.01
in. [0.25 mm] over the 2-in. [50 mm] gage length (for example,
0.5 % extension) or an offset of 0.2 % shall be taken as the
yield stress, which shall be converted to yield strength by
dividing by the original cross-sectional area of the gage length
found in accordance with
126.96.36.199. It shall be reported to the
nearest 100 psi [1 MPa]. In referee work, yield strength shall be
determined at an offset of 0.2 % from the stress strain curve.
188.8.131.52 Tensile Strength—The tensile strength shall be the
maximum load carried by the specimen during the test divided
by the original cross-sectional area of the gage length, as found
in accordance with
184.108.40.206. It shall be reported to the nearest
100 psi [1 MPa].
220.127.116.11 Elongation—The elongation is the increase in gage
length after fracture of a tensile specimen, measured to the
nearest 0.01 in. [0.25 mm] expressed as a percentage of the
original gage length. It shall be reported to the nearest 0.5 %.
FIG. 1 Tension Test Specimen
NOTE 1—Modiﬁcations may be made in the dimensions indicated above for those details of the specimen outside of the gage length as required by
testing procedure and equipment.
FIG. 2 Alternative Unmachined Tension Test Specimen
A197/A197M − 00 (2015)
7.2.3 Number of Tests and Retests:
18.104.22.168 At least three tensile test specimens shall be cast
from a representative ladle of iron from each 4-h pour period
during which the purchaser’s castings were poured.
22.214.171.124 Only one test specimen need be tested to qualify
each pour period and heat treatment batch provided the
requirements of this speciﬁcation are met by that test specimen.
126.96.36.199 If after testing, a specimen shows evidence of a
defect, another tensile test may be made on a companion
specimen. Also, a retest shall be permitted whenever fracture
occurs outside the central 50 % of the gage length.
188.8.131.52 If the result of a valid test fails to conform to the
requirements of this speciﬁcation, two retests shall be made. If
either of the retest fails to meet the speciﬁcation, all the
castings from the pour period and the heat treat batch repre-
sented by these test specimens shall be rejected.
184.108.40.206 If the ﬁrst test results indicate that a reheat treatment
is needed to meet the test requirements, the entire lot of
castings and the representative test specimens shall be reheat
treated together. Testing shall then be repeated in accordance
220.127.116.11 through 18.104.22.168.
7.2.4 The results of all tests, including retests, shall be
posted in permanent records, that shall state any abnormalities
observed during the test and in the fractured ends. Such records
shall be kept for at least one year after production of the
castings and shall be available for examination by the pur-
chaser or by his authorized representative.
7.2.5 Tensile test results, obtained in accordance with this
section, must conform to the requirements of
7.2.6 When agreed upon between the manufacturer and the
purchaser, tested specimens or unbroken test bars, or both,
shall be saved by the manufacturer for a period of three months
after the date of the test report.
8. Microstructural Requirements
8.1 The microstructure of the malleable iron shall consist of
temper carbon nodules uniformly distributed in a ferritic matrix
and shall be free from excessive pearlite, massive carbides, and
8.2 In referee work the metallographic practice recom-
mended in Test Method
A247 shall be followed.
9. Soundness Requirements
9.1 All castings, on visual examination shall be sound and
free from obvious shrinkage and porosity.
9.2 If the purchaser requires soundness tests to be
performed, it shall be so stated in the purchase agreement and
the method and soundness requirements shall be detailed.
10. Dimensional Requirements
10.1 The castings shall conform to the dimensions given on
drawings furnished by the purchaser, or to the dimensions
established by the pattern equipment supplied by the purchaser.
11. Workmanship, Finish, and Appearance
11.1 The surface of the casting shall be clean, free from
sand, and have a workmanlike ﬁnish.
12. Identiﬁcation Marking
12.1 When the size of the casting permits, each casting shall
bear the identifying mark of the manufacturer and the part or
pattern number at a location shown on the covering drawing
and if not shown on the drawing, at such a location at the
discretion of the producer that the identiﬁcation will not
interfere with subsequent processing and service of the casting.
12.2 For steam service pressures in excess of 150 psi [1000
KPa], the castings shall be marked with the manufacturer’s
name or trademark, numerals to indicate the steam service
intended, and any other marks that will clearly indicate the
maximum service for which the casting is intended. These
identifying marks shall be located where they will not interfere
with service of the casting.
13. Responsibility for Inspection
13.1 Unless otherwise speciﬁed in the contract or purchase
order, the manufacturer shall be responsible for carrying out all
the tests and inspections required by this speciﬁcation, using
his own or other reliable facilities. The manufacturer shall
maintain complete records of all such test and inspections.
Such records shall be available for review by the purchaser.
13.2 The manufacturer shall afford the purchaser’s inspector
all reasonable facilities necessary to satisfy that the material is
being produced and furnished in accordance with the appli-
cable speciﬁcation. Foundary inspection by the purchaser shall
not interfere unnecessarily with the manufacturer’s operations.
13.3 The purchaser reserves the right to perform any tests
and inspections set forth in the speciﬁcation where such tests
and inspections are deemed necessary to assure that compli-
ance with this speciﬁcation is being met.
14. Rejection and Rehearing
14.1 Any casting or lot of castings failing to comply with
the requirements of this speciﬁcation may, where possible, be
reprocessed, retested, and reinspected. If the tests and inspec-
tions on the reprocessed casting(s) show compliance with this
speciﬁcation, the castings shall be acceptable; if they do not,
they shall be rejected.
14.2 Material that fails to conform to the requirements of
this speciﬁcation may be rejected. Rejection should be reported
to the producer or supplier promptly and in writing. In case of
dissatisfaction with the results of the test, the producer or
supplier may make claim for a rehearing.
15.1 When speciﬁed in the purchase order or contract, the
purchaser shall be furnished certiﬁcation that samples repre-
senting each lot have been either tested or inspected as directed
in this speciﬁcation and the requirements have been met. When
speciﬁed in the purchase order or contract, a report of the test
results shall be furnished.
TABLE 1 Tensile Test Requirements
Tensile strength, min, psi [MPa] 40 000 
Yield strength, min, psi [MPa] 30 000 
Elongation in 2 in. [50 mm], min, % 5 
A197/A197M − 00 (2015)
16. Packaging and Package Marking
16.1 Unless otherwise stated in the contract or order, the
cleaning, preservation, and packing of casting for shipment
shall be in accordance with the manufacturer’s commercial
practice. Packaging and package marking shall also be ad-
equate to identify the contents and to ensure acceptance and
safe delivery by the carrier for the mode of transportation
X1. MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CASTINGS
X1.1 The mechanical properties of malleable iron castings
are inﬂuenced by a number of factors, that include the cooling
rate during solidiﬁcation, chemical composition, the heat
treatment, the design of the casting, section thickness, and the
location and effectiveness of gates, risers, and chills.
X1.2 Because of the complexity of these factors in inﬂu-
encing the properties of the ﬁnal product, no precise quantita-
tive relationship can be stated between the properties of the
iron in various locations of a given casting or between the
properties of a casting and those of a test specimen cast from
the same iron. When such a relationship is important and must
be known for a speciﬁc application, it may be determined by
X1.3 The specimen speciﬁed in
22.214.171.124 as the standard
tensile test bar for malleable iron has a
-in. [16 mm] diameter
test section that reasonably represents a typical section of the
general run of malleable iron castings. Furthermore, the initial
freezing and malleable irons as homogeneous white iron,
together with the heat treatment that is inherent in the manu-
facture of malleable iron, tends to reduce the section-sensitivity
effect. Therefore, where experimentation into precise proper-
ties within a given casting would be unfeasible, this standard
test bar, made like any typical casting, should provide a
practical approximation of the properties that can be expected
in any average sound malleable iron castings. When the
number of standard test bars to determine speciﬁcation com-
pliance is insufficient, the manufacturer may wish to seek
purchaser approval by comparing tension test results from the
casting in question with those of two other castings having the
same design and test bar location and from which acceptable
standard bar results were obtained.
X1.4 If malleable iron castings are welded, the microstruc-
ture of the iron is markedly affected, particularly in the
heat-affected zone. Since this may adversely affect the proper-
ties of the casting, the welding of malleable iron castings
should be done under strict metallurgical control, followed by
appropriate post-weld heat treatment, to minimize the substan-
tial reductions in ductility, impact resistance, and machinability
that could result, particularly in the vicinity of the weldment.
Nevertheless, it is generally considered inadvisable to join
castings to similar castings or to other materials, by fusion
welding out in the ﬁeld, or in manufactured assemblies,
without fully testing the entire completed part.
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A197/A197M − 00 (2015)