Archive for August, 2009

Gravity Separation Process

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Gravity Separation Process

Most oil-treating equipment relies on gravity to separate water droplets from the oil continuous phase, because water droplets are heavier than the volume of oil they displace. However, gravity is resisted by a drag force caused by the droplets’ downward movement through the oil. When the two forces are equal, a constant velocity is reached, …

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Emulsifying Agent

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When thinking about emulsion stability, it may be helpful to realize that in a pure oil and pure water mixture, without an emulsifying agent, no amount of agitation will create an emulsion. If the pure oil and water are mixed and placed in a container, they quickly separate. The natural state is for the immiscible …

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Forming Emulsions Process

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Forming Emulsions Process

For an emulsion to exist there must be two mutually immiscible liquids, an emulsifying agent, and sufficient agitation to disperse the discontinuous phase into the continuous phase. In oil production, oil and water are the two mutually immiscible liquids. An emulsifying agent in the form of small solid particles, paraffins, asphaltenes, etc., is almost always …

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Crude Oil Treating System

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Removing water from crude oil often requires additional processing beyond gravitational separation. In selecting a treating system, several factors should be considered to determine the most desirable methods of treating the crude oil to contract requirements. Some of these factors are: 1. Tightness of the emulsion. 2. Specific gravity of the oil and produced water. …

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Horizontal Three Phase Separator Part 2

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Horizontal Three Phase Separator Part 2

Figure 5-3 shows an alternate configuration known as a “bucket and weir” design. This design eliminates the need for a liquid interface controller. Both the oil and water flow over weirs where level control is accomplished by a simple displacer float. The oil overflows the oil weir into an oil bucket where its level is …

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Horizontal Three Phase Separator Part 1

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Horizontal Three Phase Separator Part 1

Three phase separator are designed as either horizontal or vertical pressure vessel. Figure 5-2 is a schematic of a horizontal separator. The fluid enters the separator and hits an inlet diverter. This sudden change in momentum does the initial gross separation of liquid and vapor as discussed in Two Phase Separator. In most designs, the …

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Lease Automatic Custudy Transfer

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Lease Automatic Custudy Transfer

In large facilities oil is typically sold through a LACT unit, which is designed to meet API Standards and whatever additional measuring and sampling standards are required by the crude purchaser. The value received for the crude will typically depend on its gravity, BS+W content, and volume. Therefore, the LACT unit must not only measure …

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Oil Treating Process

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Oil Treating Process

Most oil treating on offshore facilities is done in vertical or horizontal treaters, such as those described in “Crude Oil Treating System“. Figure 2-8 is an enlargement of the oil treater in Flow Sheet. In this case, a gas blanket is provided to assure that there is always enough pressure in the treater so the …

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Process Separator Operating Pressure

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Process Separator Operating Pressure

The choice of separator operating pressures in a multistage system is large. For large facilities many options should be investigated before a final choice is made. For facilities handling less than 50,000 bpd, there are practical constraints that help limit the options. A minimum pressure for the lowest pressure stage would be in the 25 …

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