Proprietary Carbonate Systems

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Several proprietary processes have been developed based on the hot carbonate system with an activator or catalyst. These activators increase the performance of the hot PC system by increasing the reaction rates both in the absorber and the stripper. In general, these processes also decrease corrosion in the system. The following are some of the …

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Physical Solvent Processes

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Physical Solvent Processes

These processes are based on the solubility of the H2S and/or CO2 within the solvent, instead of on chemical reactions between the acid gas and the solvent. Solubility depends first and foremost on partial pressure and secondarily on temperature. Higher acid-gas partial pressures and lower temperatures increase the solubility of H2S and CO2 in the …

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Fluor Solvent Process

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This process uses propylene carbonate as a physical solvent to remove CO2 and H2S. Propylene carbonate also removes C2+ hydrocarbons, COS, SO2, CS2, and H2O from the natural gas stream. Thus, in one step the natural gas can be sweetened and dehydrated to pipeline quality. In general, this process is used for bulk removal of …

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Sulfinol Process

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Licensed by Shell the Sulfinol® process combines the properties of a physical and a chemical solvent. The Sulfinol solution consists of a mixture of sulfolane (tetrahydrothiophene 1-1 dioxide), which is a physical solvent, diisopropanolamine (DIPA), and water. DIPA is a chemical solvent that was discussed under the amines. The physical solvent sulfolane provides the system …

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Selexol Process

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Developed by Allied Chemical Company, this process is selective toward removing sulfur compounds. Levels of CO2 can be reduced by approximately 85%. This process may be used economically when there are high acid-gas partial pressures and the absence of heavy ends in the gas, but it will not normally meet pipeline gas requirements. This process …

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Rectisol Process

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The German Lurgi Company and Linde A. G. developed the Rectisol® process to use methanol to sweeten natural gas. Due to the high vapor pressure of methanol this process is usually operated at temperatures of -30 to ~100°F. It has been applied to the purification of gas for LNG plants and in coal gasification plants, …

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Random Packing

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Random Packing

A bed of random packing typically consists of a bed support (typically a gas injection support plate) upon which pieces of packing material are randomly arranged (they are usually poured or dumped onto this support plate). Bed limiters, or hold-downs, are sometimes set above random beds to prevent the pieces of packing from migrating or …

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Structured Packing

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Structured Packing

A bed of structured packing consists of a bed support upon which elements of structured packing are placed. Beds of structured packing typically have lower pressure drops than beds of random packing of comparable mass transfer efficiency. Structured packing elements are composed of grids (metal or plastic) or woven mesh (metal or plastic) or of …

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Distillation Service

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For distillation services, as in condensate stabilization, tray design is well understood, and many engineers are more comfortable with trays than with packing. In the past, bubble cap trays were the standard. However, they are not commonly used in this service anymore. Sieve trays are inexpensive but offer a very narrow operating range when compared …

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Gas Stripping Service

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For stripping service, as in a glycol or amine contactor , bubble cap trays are the most common. In recent years, there has been a growing movement toward crimped sheet structured packing. Improved vapor and liquid distributor design in conjunction with structured packing can lead to smaller-diameter and shorter stripping towers than can be obtained …

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